Container terminal operations are pure play infrastructure business and have some of the following key characteristics: High barriers to entry due to the high capital requirements, regulatory requirements and limited land availability Coordinated hinterland transportation connections requiring local governments receptive to development New terminal development often constrained by local planning procedures and regulations Long lead times for project execution due to the involvement of many stakeholders in the process Limited competition partially due to geographical constraints The competitiveness of container terminal's operations is determined not only by the terminals' facilities but also its the external infrastructure.
Page 37 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Improving Productivity in U. The National Academies Press. The physical plant con- sists of berths for ships, cranes for transfer of containers between the terminal and the ship, yards for storage of the containers, gates for entrance, exit, and checking of containers, several other smaller subdivisions for equipment, and administration.
The pro- cesses involved include checking the containers through the gate in both directionsstuffing and stripping, transporting contain- ers between gate and storage areas and between the storage area and the cranes, and hoisting the containers on and off the ship.
In the United States today there exists a large number of con- tainer terminals, the total capacity of which exceeds that required to handle the current level of trade. This situation results, in part, from the fact that many local and state governments have encour- aged the development of their ports through a variety of subsidies.
Selection of a particular terminal by a shipping line results from considering a multitude of factors, including the terminal charges, container terminal business plan turnaround time for the ship, the nearness of the terminal to the container shippers or receivers, the convenience of the terminal to the hinterland infrastructure road, rail, feeder shippingand Workshop participants are listed in Appendix D.
The first two factors can be directly influenced by the various parties that have direct control of the terminal activities. These parties include the port, the terminal operator, the stevedores, and to a certain extent the shipping line and the truckers who use the terminal as an interface.
The remaining factors, although very important to the success of a terminal in attracting business, are the result of geographic location, weather, historical accident, demographic factors, and container terminal business plan like. These factors are not addressed in the following discussion of terminal productivity, since they do not represent features that can easily be modified by the interested parties.
The focus of this report involves, therefore, only the measure- ment of productivity of the terminal itself. Measurement is the first step in management, since it provides the necessary yardstick for assessing both performance and improvement.
Productivity measures are traditionally formed as the ratios of two quantities that generally reflect an input to a process and its output. In industry either the input or the output is often measured in monetary terms, since profitability is an issue. Labor is a principal component in the cost of operating a terminal.
Wide variations of labor costs exist across the United States, and even larger variations exist when compared with labor costs abroad.
It is fair to say that most of the parties involved in container terminals use such cost measures in their daily business, although there is no unanimity on which measures are the most appropriate and, under any circumstance, these measures are considered highly proprietary.
Approaches that involve actual costs have not been adopted here. Efficient operation of a terminal is presumed to require cer- tain labor, land, and equipment resources independent of these local variations. The point of view here is that productivity mea- sures that are ratios of two physical measurements can reflect the efficiency of the process without the need for addressing local costs.
As such, these measures should have broad applicability both here and abroad. Finally, any measure of productivity should be selected on the basis that it is unambiguous, easy to measure, and sensitive to the most critical part of the operation it addresses.
Each process is crucial to the subsequent process, and the productivity of each depends not only on its intrinsic ability to perform the process, but on the interface with the other processes as well. For instance, a slow loading rate of containers on board a ship could be the result of limitations of the particular crane, of poor delivery of containers to the crane, of excessive heel of the ship, or of other factors not related to the crane or its gang.
The major elements in the terminal operation on which one can focus on productivity are: The Container Yard Unlike the traditional finger pier and storage shed operation, which characterize break bulk operations, a container terminal requires an expanse of flat land for tempo- rary container storage.
If a broad expanse of land is available, then it may be possible to stow individual containers on wheeled chassis; if the land area is small it may be necessary to stack the containers, two, three, or more high.
The movement of containers in a container yard requires very different equipment for a chassis operation than for a grounded or stacked arrangement, and the efficiency of this part of the operation reflects these differences.
Generally speaking, the larger the land available, the easier it is to provide efficient land operations within the terminal. On the other hand, if the shape of the land is something other than rectangular, then this geometry may adversely affect the yard performance.
The Cranes The cranes are the single most expensive piece of mechanical equipment used in a container terminal. These sophisticated pieces of machinery have been developed to pick up containers from the dock and place them onto a containership efficiently, or vice versa.
Because as many as three or more of these units may work a ship simultaneously, it is important for productivity for these cranes to perform well. Crane delays can be caused by a variety of factors including the appropriate container or chassis not being available for the next cycle, the requirement for the crane operation to be stopped during coning or lashing, and crane driver capability and experience.
The Labor Labor costs are a significant part of any termi- nal operation and must be considered in any analysis of a marine terminal. Most of the labor in a marine terminal is union labor, and the productivity of labor is obviously dependent, in part, on the negotiated work rules.
This includes the number and type of workers required for the individual gangs, the hours worked, spe- cialization of crafts, and overtime work requirements. In addition, the labor productivity is dependent on a variety of other factors including the organization of the terminal both physically and administrativelythe age and operability of the equipment, and the weather.
The Gate The gate represents a significant part of any terminal operation in that it controls the flow of containers in and out of the container yard. A typical outbound loaded container is weighed and inspected for damage, and the shipping documents checked. This process can take either a matter of minutes or more than an hour, depending on the problems encountered.
To prevent the gate from being a bottleneck in the flow through the container terminal, most terminals are equipped with extensive hardware such as computers or television cameras to aid in the inspection.The MOL Group not only operates container terminals in five ports-Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Osaka, and Kobe, but also offers cargo handling services for car carriers and other cargo ships in Japan as part of our comprehensive approach to the terminal business.
This statistic represents global container market demand growth from through Between and , global container market demand is projected to increase by around percent.
Brownfield project automation It is necessary to note that the decision to automate a port container terminal, as is the case in other industries, differs depending on whether we are looking at a terminal being newly developed â€“greenfield-, or at a terminal already in operation â€“brownfield-.
Operation, management and commercial understanding of the container terminal business by tutored distance learning. Container port design process is a set of correlated practices considered during container port design, aiming to transfer general business mission into detailed design .
The Vishakapatnam Port Trust (VPT), Which has prepared the master plan to become a world-class port, is all set to raise the green flag for the expansion of the container terminal with an investment of Rs.
crore, one of its big-ticket projects.