The phrase "evaluation and control" is sometimes used as a means of breaking down the control function into two separate elements. The control function involves the development and implementation of measurement programs to evaluate progress toward organizational goals. System Controls Systematic evaluation and control focuses on methods of evaluating company performance against objectives. A sales organization monitors actual sales against quotas.
On admission MRSA prevalence: In the study by Chaix et al. The second study, by Clancy et al. It quantifies their experience with culture-based methodology for screening patients to determine the need for contact precautions, and It uses the excess cost data from Chaix to drive their own assumptions for the excess costs of screening.
While the results are impressive e. Finally, Harbeth et al. Studies such as these have direct impact on infection control practices in health care; in this case the more appropriate use of isolation activities.
While the ICP will not necessarily take Control and evaluation 1 lead here, evaluations such as these advance the importance of the ICP's role beyond traditional surveillance. The role of cost effective analysis One important unsettled issue relates to cost-effective analysis CEA.
While experts agree that some kind of CEA is needed, there is no agreement as to the extent of the analysis, other than to keep it simple.
In the case of purchases that represent cost savings or are cost-neutral, the analysis can be brief. For product evaluations that are linked to program changes or interventions, CEA assessment in terms of cost per infection prevented is preferred, although costs avoided per patient per month with an intervention is equally acceptable, depending on the product and intervention being reviewed.
In either case, a business case can be made using local cost figures combined with results from published studies. Studies of complex purchases linked to infection control interventions that do not assess costs are probably the least desirable.
Many studies of this type are important and relevant, but generally lack a strong business case to support widespread adoption. Evidence to support product use Beyond costs, infection control product evaluation can be classified into three major areas as shown below.
Products that claim to "kill viruses on contact," or are "effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus and H1N1 influenza" should be viewed with caution. In other words, the fundamentals of infection control should not be overlooked in favor of marketing claims without evidence to support them.
For example, the role of copper as an antimicrobial has received some attention over the years as an infection control product in hospitals. Clinical trials data are limited and show only that copper reduces bacterial burden.
Obviously, this is an attractive concept. However, there are no trials to show its impact on reducing infection rates. Instead, the limited data on its bactericidal properties are marketed as "evidence" to support copper's role as an agent against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Many experts believe that these claims exaggerate copper's role as an infection control tool. On the other hand, some facilities have taken the paucity of evidence for copper and replaced door hardware and other metal objects, or used copper-based paints as an infection control tool.
There is general agreement that ultraviolet UV light kills M. The use of this type of product needs to be put into context with the nature of the individual facility, the frequency with which tuberculosis patients are seen in the facility, and tuberculin PPD conversion rates of employees.
In other words, despite recent data on the effectiveness of UV light in preventing transmission of M. In this case, UV light is not a substitute for the infection control fundamental of adequate air handling systems.
This discussion moves beyond disinfectants and hand hygiene products and discusses an evaluation of new technologies and strategies for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA prevention. Advances in technology have replaced traditional surveillance activities for MRSA and have direct implications on the cost effectiveness of our activities.
More recently, active screening programs to detect potential MRSA carriers have advanced the earlier approach to managing clusters of infection after MRSA transmission has been identified. Instead, screening selected patients with either culture-based techniques or with rapid screening technologies for MSRA are emerging components of MRSA control, particularly in intensive care units.
While patient screening increases the direct costs of care, the emerging evidence suggests that MRSA screening can be cost-effective and is worthy of consideration.
First, making the case for an intervention such as rapid molecular screening for MRSA requires a hierarchical approach to the problem and provides a good example of the importance of the multidisciplinary team approach to state the case.
For this evaluation, infection control staff, ICU staff and administration, infectious diseases, laboratory, and hospital administration and finance staff are key team members. The central question is how aggressive the approach should be to prevent MRSA.Strategic evaluation and control is the process of determining the effectiveness of a given strategy in achieving the organizational objectives and taking corrective actions whenever required.
Control can be exercised through formulation of contingency strategies and a crisis management team. Effective program evaluation is a systematic way to improve and account for public health actions by involving procedures that are useful, feasible, ethical, and accurate.
The Framework for Evaluation in Public Health  guides public health professionals in their use of program evaluation. Control & Evaluation Presentation Name December 05 Objective Understand the need for evaluation and control of marketing plans and their implementation, and the ways in which this can be achieved Brassington & Pettitt, Principles of Marketing Stages in the Planning Process Corporate objectives Marketing audit SWOT.
A summary of current controversies regarding infection control and product evaluation. This discussion includes two areas of controversy related to infection control product evaluation: (1) low technology and (2) high technology products.
Low-technology controversies. Marketing Evaluation and Control Steps that an organization takes to ensure that its marketing plans are successful. Types of marketing evaluation control 1. Annual plan control • Sales analysis • Market-share analysis • Market expense to sales analysis • Financial analysis.
Administrative Control and Evaluation. Learning objectives To be able to: 1. Define and explain key terms and concepts: Control Measuring Personal observation Comparing the concept evaluation may be viewed as the Public accountability Written reports.