Nearly all healthcare clinicians have or will encounter ethical dilemmas during their clinical operations.
Healthcare The following annotated sources do not necessarily reflect the Center's positions or values. These sources, however, are excellent resources for familiarizing oneself with the all sides of the issue. Principles of Biomedical Ethics.
Oxford University Press, The book addresses critiques of the approach as presented in earlier additions; new developments in theory; and new issues in research, medicine, and health care. The original framework containing four clusters of secular principles—respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice—is upheld as "the common morality" accepted by "all morally serious persons.
However, the framework has also provoked controversy and questions about its adequacy to resolve critical issues in bioethics and in clinical practice. In response, Beauchamp and Childress here offer an extended defense of their theory and critical examination of points of debate.
This edition consists of nine chapters divided into three parts, as well as an appendix of ten biomedical ethics cases. In Part I, chapter 1, entitled "Moral Norms," introduces the decision-making framework with attention to specifying and balancing principles and rules for moral deliberation and decision-making.
|Healthcare and Clinical Ethics Annotated Bibliography||Excerpt from Case Study: Counseling -- Ethical Dilemma -- Case Study A year-old Jewish female student advises a counselor that she went to a party last weekend with an African-American year-old boy, and ended up passed out in an upstairs bedroom.|
Chapter 2, entitled "Moral Character," elaborates on moral virtues and ideals as an often-neglected area in biomedical ethics. In Part II, chapters 3 through 6 present the four basic groups of principles, and chapter 7, "Professional-Patient Relationships," examines the moral rules of veracity, privacy, confidentiality, and fidelity in the context of relationships between researchers and research participants, as well as between health care professionals and patients.
Part III consists of two chapters containing a detailed analysis of theories and methods in biomedical ethics. Chapter 8, "Moral Theories," reviews criteria for theory construction, as well as five types of moral theory: Chapter 9, "Method and Moral Justification," critically compares top-down and bottom-up models of justification and elaborates the preferred third model of "common morality" theory, illustrating its advantages with two other theories of common morality those of William Frankena and W.
The authors suggest that readers interested in moral theory consult these two concluding chapters immediately after reading the first two. According to Beauchamp and Childress, moral justification proceeds from "an expansive coherentist framework of norms that originate at all 'levels.
However, specific religiously grounded concepts can be tracked through names of theorists and occasionally through the concept itself via the extensive page index.
For instance, critical attention is given to the justification criteria behind distinctions made in certain end-of-life situations originating in Roman Catholic doctrine such as the "ordinary versus extraordinary care" distinction and the rule of "double effect".
Beauchamp and Childress take into consideration the possible negative impact of certain lines of reasoning on deeply held societal beliefs and values such as "respect for life"but in the end they do not allow an "absolutist" prohibition of any decision, including, for example, physician-assisted suicide upon the request of a fully "autonomous" patient.
Tanner, and Catherine A. Expertise in Nursing Practice: Caring, Clinical Judgment, and Ethics. Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice Addison-Wesley, with research from a six-year study of hospital nurses in 8 hospitals.
Real-life nursing examples illustrate the progression from principle-based practice guided by science, technology, and ethics to response-based practice guided by practical knowledge accumulated through engaged reasoning.
Thirteen chapters are supported by a foreword from a practicing nurse, an introduction, references and bibliography, and an index, with three appendices on research methods and the nurse informants. Application to other disciplines such as medicine, social work, teaching, occupational therapy, and physical therapy is welcomed.
Key to the analysis is clearer recognition of the "existential skills of involvement" with patients and families, which the authors describe as "knowing how close or distant to be with patients and families in critical times of threat and recovery" and as "learned over time experientially.
The results challenge the technical-rationality model of professional practice that underlies most studies of both medical and nursing clinical judgment and demonstrate that abstract reasoning based on criteria alone fails to consider changes in patients' conditions and in the clinician's understanding of the unfolding clinical situation.
In chapter 2, Dreyfus and Dreyfus review the western European philosophical tradition in their reconsideration of the currently prevalent belief "that the role of experience is merely to refine theory.
Separate chapters explore the four last stages. In chapter 7, Rubin closely examines a group of nurses who appeared not to develop professionally through the normal trajectory and whose practice was judged to be "safe but not expert" despite years of experience.
Rubin finds fault chiefly in the structure of nursing practice and calls for improving nursing education so that skills specific to nursing are provided.
Chapters 8 and 9 elucidate "the social embeddedness of knowledge" and "the primacy of caring and the role of experience, narrative, and community" in unifying clinical and ethical expertise. In chapter 10, Dreyfus, Dreyfus, and Benner critically appraise the "justice versus care" controversy raised by Lawrence Kohlberg's cognitivist model of moral development and Carol Gilligan's feminist critique of Kohlberg's levels with her "caring" situationist ethic based on intuition and responding with love.
Coming down on the latter's "caring" side but finding her arguments inadequate, the authors flesh out the concept of moral maturity with reference to the traditional philosophy reviewed in chapter 2.What Type Of An Ethical Dilemma Have You Encountered In The Clinical Setting How Can The Decision Making Model Identified By Uustal Be Applied To This Situation Be.
We offer a systematic strategy that situates clinical ethical reasoning within the paradigm of We recommend 6 familiar sources of ethical value that can be used to support decision making in clinical ethics but also invite clinicians to incorporate their preferred sources into its scheme.
Possible conflicts between competing values. The purpose of this article is to use Aroskar's ethical decision making model to analyze and clarify the ethical dilemmas involved in managing marital violence, including: under the value systems of the person, the profession, and time to illustrate the basic information, decision theory dimensions, and ethical theories or positions.
Ethical Decision Making in Nursing: Models & Examples The participative ethical decision making (PEDM) model covers the standards we just discussed.
This model involves seven questions to be. Making Decisions. Making good ethical decisions requires a trained sensitivity to ethical issues and a practiced method for exploring the ethical aspects of a decision and weighing the considerations that should impact our choice of a course of action.
Having a method for . What type of an ethical dilemma have you encountered in the clinical setting? How can the decision-making model identified by Uustal be applied to this situation?
Paper instructions: Uustal () proposed a decision-making model that provides concrete steps in which to arrive at a morally acceptable solution when faced with an ethical dilemma.