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The author of this treatise has endeavored to put within brief compass the essential facts pertaining to the history and use of the word, and he thinks he has conclusively shown that it affords no support whatever to the erroneous doctrine. It will generally be conceded that the tenet referred to is not contained in the Scriptures if the meaning of endless duration does not reside in the controverted word.
The reader is implored to examine the evidence presented, as the author trusts it has been collected, with a sincere desire to learn the truth.
This essay aims to prove the popular impression erroneous. The inquiry will be pursued in a manner that shall be satisfactory to the scholar, and also enable the ordinary reader to apprehend the facts, so that both the learned and the unlearned may be able to see the subject in a light that shall relieve the Scriptures of seeming to teach a doctrine that blackens the character of God, and plunges a deadly sting into the believing heart.
We proceed to show that the sense of interminable duration does not reside in the word. Three avenues are open to us in which to pursue this important investigation. Our first appeal will be to Etymology. An ounce of usage is worth a pound of it. Etymology is theory, usage is fact.
Suppose two thousand years hence some one should endeavor to prove that in the year the word prevent meant to go before. He could establish his position by the etymology of the word, but he would be wholly wrong, as would appear by universal usage in our current literature. But its derivation does not point in that direction.
It was transferred from breathing to collection, or multitude of times. Commenting on Lennep's derivation of the word, Rev. But this etymology is not the popular one.
In describing the highest heaven, the residence of the gods, Aristotle says: For indeed, the word itself according to the ancients, divinely expressed this. Boise, 6 Professor of Greek in the University of Chicago: But, beyond the heaven, it has been shown that there is neither a body, nor can there be.
It is plain, therefore, that there is neither space, nor void, nor time beyond. The passage of Aristotle in which his etymology occurs, has been mistranslated, for it does not give the etymology of the abstract idea eternity, but of the concrete idea God, as an ever-existing person, from whom all other personal beings derived existence and life.
But Aristotle does not say or intimate that the word had the meaning of eternity in his day, nor does his statement of its derivation prove that it had that meaning then.
I give two instances. The multitude desired Pilate to release a prisoner, Mark xv: It is alway, or always, or ever, in each text. Liddell and Scott give more than fifty compounds of aei. Grimm rejects it, and Robinson in his latest editions gives both etymologies without deciding between them.
We have shown that aei is used eight times in the New Testament, and not in the sense of endless, once. We shall prove that Aristotle himself uniformly used the word in the sense of limited duration, and under the head of Classic Usage will hereafter prove that at the time the Old Testament was rendered into Greek, this was the only meaning the word had with any Greek writer.
Adopt either derivation, and indefinite duration is the easy and natural meaning of the word, if we suffer ourselves to be guided by its etymology. Eternity can only be expressed by it when it is accompanied by other words, denoting endless duration, or by the name of Deity.
All will agree that words may change their meaning, and therefore that etymology is an uncertain guide. If etymology point in one direction, and usage in another, the former must yield; but if both utter one fact, each reinforces and strengthens the other.
This we have illustrated by the etymology of 'prevent. Words start out with a certain meaning, and change it in process of time. That it had not that meaning at first would not hinder it from being thus used subsequently.
Etymology proves nothing one way or the other, its evidence is but prima facie; usage is the only decisive authority. But etymology gives no warrant for applying the idea of eternity to the word. We have proceeded on the ground that Aristotle's etymology is authoritative.
But nothing is further from the truth. The scholarship of to-day, possessed by an average educated philologist, is far more competent to trace this or any Greek word to its real source, than Plato or Aristotle was able to do. In his analysis of Plato's Cratylus, 8 Grote accurately observes of Plato's etymologies:1) Write a Clear Description of your Definite Chief Aim.
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Think about it night and day. Once you’ve decided upon your Definite Chief Aim, all of your decisions and actions align with this major purpose. 6. Sign and date your definite chief aim.
When you complete your definite chief aim, put it somewhere where you can repeat it to yourself every morning when you wake up and before you go to bed at night. Visualize your success as you repeat this statement to yourself. It must fill you with excitement and enthusiasm as you read and feel it.
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youth is a subset of adults). THE SPIKE. It was late-afternoon. Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much.