Self-help meetings Accessible meetings Often, collaborating agencies must be educated about the nature of substance abuse disorders, including the cycles of relapse and recovery.
Workload not constant; heavy at target areas and for route change Ineffective or error-prone system Requirements targeted at known system strengths and weaknesses Automation takes over flight and hand-offs complex tasks to operator-based on priority Operator who is overwhelmed during high workload and bored during low workload Design takes into account known machine and human strengths and weaknesses Targeting decision aid not trusted by human operator Validation and verification would not consider the human limitations in relation to the new system Testing takes into account usability and comparison to prior system Up-front analysis and HSI input in early exploration activities is critical.
Methods can be tailored to time and money constraints, but HSI expertise is required to do so. Risks are incurred if human-system integration Integrated cases chapter 5 not considered or if it is considered late. In this case the risk would be a system that is not usable and that ultimately leads to catastrophic failure.
Department of Homeland Security DHS is in the process of implementing a large-scale radiation screening program to protect the Integrated cases chapter 5 from nuclear weapons or dirty bombs that might be smuggled across the border through various ports of entry.
This program encompasses all land, air, and maritime ports of entry. Our example focuses on radiation screening at seaports, which have a particularly complex operational nature. Seaports are structured to facilitate the rapid offloading of cargo containers from ocean-going vessels, provide temporary storage of the containers, and provide facilities for trucks and trains to load containers for transport to their final destination.
The National Academies Press. Figure illustrates the steps involved in the radiation screening process. Design and deployment of radiation portal monitoring RPM systems for seaport operations engages the incremental commitment model for ensuring commitments from the stakeholders and to meet the fundamental technical requirement of screening percent of arriving international cargo containers for illicit radioactive material.
This example illustrates aspects of the ICM process with specific instances of human-system integration linked to concurrent technical activities in the RPM program.
The development of RPM systems for application in the seaport environment entails an iterative process that reflects the overall set of themes developed in this book. We discuss how these themes are reflected in the engineering process. Human-System Integration in the Context of Risk-Driven Incremental Commitments The human factors design issues encountered in this program are very diverse, ranging from fundamental questions of alarm system effectiveness at a basic research level, to very practical and time-sensitive issues, such as the most appropriate methods of signage or traffic signaling for controlling Page 99 Share Cite Suggested Citation: HSI methods have been applied on a needs-driven basis, with risk as a driver for the nature of the application.
With the issue of alarm system effectiveness, for example, it was recognized early in the program that reducing system nuisance alarms is an important issue, but one that requires a considerable amount of physics research and human factors display system modeling and design.
The ICM process allowed early implementation of systems with a higher nuisance alarm rate than desirable while pursuing longer term solutions to problems involving filtering, new sensors, and threat-based displays. The nuisance alarm risk was accepted for the early implementations, while concurrent engineering was performed to reduce the alarm rate and improve the threat displays for implementation in later versions.
A contrasting example involves traffic signage and signaling. Since the flow of cargo trucks through port exits is a critical element of maintaining commercial flow, yet proper speed is necessary for RPM measurement, methods for proper staging of individual vehicles needed to be developed.
Most ports involve some type of vehicle checkout procedure, but this could not be relied on to produce consistent vehicle speed through the RPM systems. Instead, the program engaged the HSI specialty to assist in developing appropriate signage and signaling that would ensure truck driver attention to RPM speed requirements.
The need for rapid deployment of RPM systems to maximize threat detection and minimize commercial impact has been the key program driver, and this has also influenced how the HSI discipline has been applied. The primary effect of program urgency and budgetary limitations has been to focus HSI efforts in work domain analysis, the modeling of human-system interactions, and theory-based analysis rather than experiment.
The work domain analysis has typically focused on gaining a rapid understanding of relatively complicated seaport operations in order to evaluate technology insertion opportunities and to better understand design requirements. In contrast to work domain analysis oriented toward cognitive decision aids, which requires time-intensive collaboration with subject matter experts, the RPM analysis worked at a coarser level to characterize staff functions and interactions, material flow, and operational tempo.
Similarly, modeling of human-system interactions such as responding to a traffic light or an intercom system was performed at the level of detail necessary to facilitate design, rather than a comprehensive representation of operator cognitive processes—this was not required to support engineering.
Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: This work consisted of adapting traditional observer-based signal detection theory, in which the human is an active component of the detection system, to RPM systems in which the human operator evaluates the output of a sensor system that detects a threat precondition.
Various threat probability analyses have been conducted in this effort, and they can be used to guide subsequent advanced RPM designs.
This work has been guided by empirical studies, but it has not required an independent data collection effort. Shared Representations Used to Communicate The rapid-paced nature of the RPM program places a premium on effective communication between human-system integration and the engineering disciplines.
In this program, fairly simple communication mechanisms that use graphics or presentation methods adapted from engineering have the best chance of successful communication. For example, it is important to evaluate the human error risks associated with new security screening systems so that mitigation approaches can be designed.
One approach to describing this to the engineering community might be to simply borrow existing taxonomies from researchers in the field, such as Reason Alternatively, a more graphic and less verbose approach is to represent the approach as a fault tree, shown in Figure This type of representation is immediately recognizable to the engineering community and is less subject to interpretation than abstract descriptions of error typologies.
FIGURE General model of human error analysis for security screening used as a shared representation to communicate the concept to engineering staff.
Human-system integration has used graphics to convey fairly abstract design ideas to the engineering staff, as shown in Figure This display conveys the concept of a threat likelihood display, which informs the RPM operator about the contents of a vehicle based on processing algorithms.
The graphic contrasts the eight-step process shown in Figurewith a four-step screening process, illustrating the functional utility of the display in a direct way.
Accommodation to Changing Conditions and Workplace Requirements The RPM program started with a set of baseline designs for seaports that involved a cargo container passing through an exit gate.Chapter 5 – Employment and acquires an integrated enterprise-wide and interagency perspective through assignments that cross Department of Defense (DoD) components and boundaries.
In such cases, the employee converts to permanent in the same or lower work level or grade. to: Continue the Springdale Shopping Survey at the end of Chapter 5 in the Integrated Cases section in Introduction - Answered by a verified Math Tutor or Teacher.
For other suggestions about the lecture, please see the “Lecture Suggestions” in Chapter 2, . Learn strategic management with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of strategic management flashcards on Quizlet.
Integrated Case D’Leon Inc., Part II Financial Statement Analysis Part I of this case, presented in Chapter 3, discussed the situation of D’Leon Inc., a regional snack foods producer, after an . NAME: FIN - Financial Management DATE: 02/28/ Chapter 5 - Integrated C Time Value of M Background Information Present Value Fixed Income $ 60, Average Expected Inflation Rate 3% Average Return on Common Stocks 11% Average Return on Corporate Bonds 6% Equally Weighted Portfolio % Years of retirement from age 65 to age 80 15 Assets remaining at age 80 $ .