Our Sample Medical Ghostwriting In the field of medical writing, it is important to have all the facts.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Any assistance an author receives with writing a scientific article that is not acknowledged in the article is described as ghost-writing.
Articles ghost-written by medical writers engaged by pharmaceutical companies who have a vested interest in the content have caused concern after scandals revealed misleading content in some articles.
A key criterion of authorship in medical journals is final approval of the article submitted for publication. Authors are responsible for the content of their articles and for acknowledging any assistance they receive. Action taken by some journals and medical writer associations to encourage acknowledgement is an uphill task in the light of disinterest from the pharmaceutical industry and ignorance or similar lack of interest by those who agree to be named authors.
However, acknowledgment alone is not sufficient to resolve medical ghost-writing; issues medical ghostwriting companies how the acknowledgement is formulated, permission to acknowledge and access to raw data also need to be tackled.
The ghost-writers in medicine are medical writers used by pharmaceutical companies or contract research organisations and medical communication agencies that serve the industry. Some medical writers are employed by the industry or its service agencies, others are self-employed and work under contract.
Articles written by medical writers are published in medical journals.
These articles can influence doctors and policy makers in their decisions that effect health. Therefore the articles have marketing potential and there is a feeling that articles associated with manufacturers of pharmaceuticals make exaggerated promises and omit information that might disadvantage their products - but whereas advertisements carry the name of the manufacturer, a ghost-written article does not.
Medical ghost-writing has attracted the ire of the mass media and those campaigning for ethics in the dissemination of medical research information. A statement in the published article acknowledging the role of the medical writer is seen as the solution to ghost-writing.
Nevertheless guidelines seem to be largely ignored.
In this article I will look at the current understanding of what constitutes medical ghost-writing, writing assistance and scientific authorship and I will critically review the extent to which acknowledgement is the solution to the problem. Furthermore the very term itself has been blamed for the persistence of the practice because it implicitly identifies medical writers as the wrongdoers, detracting from the more serious ethical problem of the production of ghost-written articles for purposes of marketing Moffatt and Elliott, Authors of articles published in medical journals used to write their articles themselves.
This is the evolutionary stage reached by the ICMJE guidelines, which many - but not all - medical journals have adopted or have selected parts to follow.
Ghost-writing is not mentioned. Concise Oxford Dictionary, Merriam-Webster Dictionary define a ghost-writer as a person employed to write material for another person, who is named as author: The Concise Oxford Dictionary,p This person writes rather than edits. The identity of the writer does not need to be concealed to satisfy the definition.
Therefore a medical ghost-writer is a writer whose name does not appear anywhere in a published article. InReidenberg et al. For the three criteria, see the fourth paragraph below. Note the shift from assistance after the author has written the draft as described above to the assistant writing the draft.
In their study they compared clinical trial protocols provided by an ethics committee with corresponding publications reporting the results in medical journals.Aug 05, · The documents on ghostwriting were uncovered by lawyers suing Wyeth and were made public after a request in court from PLoS Medicine, a medical journal from the Public Library of Science, and The New York Times.
|Ghostwriting Jobs for September | Freelancer||This inappropriate authorship threatens scientific credibility, and leads to a lack of transparency and accountability Ghostwritten articles, as a general rule, are paid for by pharmaceutical companies in order to guarantee their drug will be portrayed in a favorable light. When your doctor uses such articles as a basis for prescribing a drug, your health can be at risk Some of the more dangerous drugs have owed their popularity and widespread use to favorable studies written by ghostwriters paid by the drug maker in question, such as Vioxx, Neurontin, and the diet drug Redux By Dr.|
Medical ghostwriters are employed by pharmaceutical companies and medical-device manufacturers to produce apparently independent manuscripts for peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and other communications. Physicians and other scientists are paid to attach their names to the manuscripts as though they had authored them.
Medical ghostwriting, while in and of itself ethical, is used for unethical purposes.
Many ghostwritten articles are used by pharmaceutical companies to present manipulated data in order to increase sales. In response to the rise of ghostwritten articles responses such as . Medical ghostwriting typically involves the use of hired writers from marketing companies to write research papers based on data provided from pharmaceutical companies.
These hired authors are not given actual credit on the paper. For medical journals, ghostwriting usually refers to writers sponsored by a drug or medical device company, who make major but uncredited research- or writing contributions.
The articles are instead published under the names of academic authors. Medical ghost management is a comprehensive program for controlling the dissemination of medical research.
It is generally done for pharmaceutical companies by professional publication planners who map out the entire process of publication, from the initial research design through to publication of results.